In the Structure of Java Virtual Machine we scratched the surface of a class file structure, how it is connected to java memory model via class loading process. Also, we briefly discussed bytecode structure and its execution including a short introduction to Just In Time runtime optimisation. In this post we will look more at the internals of execution engine, however, there is no ambition to substitute a detailed VM implementation documentation for HotSpot JVM but just provide enough details to gain bigger picture.
Basic Threading model in HotSpot JVM is a one to one mapping between Java threads (an instance of java.lang.Thread) and native operating system threads. The native thread is created when the Java thread is started and reclaimed once it terminates. The operating system is responsible for scheduling all threads and dispatching to any available CPU. The relationship between java threads priorities and operating system thread priorities varies across operating systems.
HotSpot provides monitors by which threads running application code may participate in mutual exclusion (mutex) protocol. The monitor is either locked or unlocked. Only one thread may own the lock at any time. Only after acquiring ownership of the monitor thread may enter the critical section protected by this monitor. Critical sections are referred as synchronised blocks delineated by synchronised keyword.
Apart from application threads, JVM contains also internal threads which can be categorised into following groups:
VM Thread – responsible for executing VM operations
Periodic task thread – thread executing periodic operations within the VM (singleton instance of WatcherThread)
GC threads – threads of different types to support parallel an concurrent garbage collections
Signal dispatcher threads – thread waiting for processing directed signals and dispatches them to a java signal handling method
VM thread spends its time waiting for requested operations to appear in the operation queue (VMOperationQueue). The operation is typically passed to VM Thread because they require the VM to reach safepoint before they can be executed. When the VM is at safepoint all threads inside the VM have been blocked and any threads executing in native code are prevented from returning to the VM while the safepoint is in progress. This means that VM operation can be executed knowing that no thread can be in the middle of modifying heap. All threads are in a state such that their Java stacks are unchanging and can be examined.
Most familiar VM operation is related to garbage collection, particularly stop-the-world phase of garbage collection that is common to many garbage collocational algorithms. Other VM operation is: thread stacks dumps, thread suspension or stopping, inspection or modification via JVMTI etc. VM operation can be synchronous or asynchronous.
Safepoints are initiated using cooperative pooling based mechanism. Thread asks: “Should I block for a safepoint?” The moment when this is happening often is during thread state transition. Threads executing interpreted code don’t usually ask the question, instead of when safepoint is requested interpreter switches to different dispatch table which includes that question. When safepoint is over the dispatched table is switched back. Once safepoint has been requested VM Thread must wait until all threads are known to be in safepoint safe state before proceeding with the operation. During safepoint thread lock is used to block any threads that were running and releasing the lock when operation completed.
Java-based applications run in Java Runtime Environment (JRE) which consists of a set of Java APIs and Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The JVM loads an application via class loaders and runs it by the execution engine.
JVM runs on all kind of hardware where executes a java bytecode without changing java execution code. VM implements a Write Once Run Everywhere principle or so-called platform independence principle. Just to sum up JVM key design principles:
Clearly defined primitive data types – Languages like C or C++ have a size of primitive data types depending on the platform. Java is unified in that matter.
Fixed byte order to Big Endian (network byte order) – Intel x86 uses little endian while RISC processors use big endian. Java uses big-endian.
Automatic memory management – class instances are created by the user and automatically removed by Garbage Collection.
Stack based VM – typical computer architectures such as Intel x86 are based on registers however JVM is based on a stack.
Symbolic reference – all types except primitive one are referred via symbolic name instead direct memory addresses.
Java uses bytecode as an intermediate representation between source code and machine code which runs on hardware. Bytecode instruction is represented as 1 byte numbers e.g. getfield 0xb4, invokevirtual 0xb6 hence there is a maximum of 256 instructions. If the instruction doesn’t need operand so next instruction immediately follows otherwise operands follow instruction according to instruction set specification. Those instructions are contained in class files produced by java compilation. The exact structure of the class file is defined in “Java Virtual Machine specification” section 4 – class file format. After some version information there are sections like constant pools, access flags, fields info, this and super info, methods info etc. See the spec for the details.
A class loader loads compiled java bytecode to the Runtime Data Areas and the execution engine executes the java bytecode. Class is loaded when is used for the first time in the JVM. Class loading works in dynamic fashion on parent-child (hierarchical) delegation principle. Class unloading is not allowed. Some time ago I wrote an article about class loading on application server. Detail mechanics of class loading is out of scope for this article.
Runtime data areas are used during execution of the program. Some of these areas are created when JVM starts and destroyed when the JVM exits. Other data areas are per-thread – created on thread creation and destroyed on thread exit. FThe following picture is based mainly on JVM 8 internals (doesn’t include segmented code cache and dynamic linking of language introduced by JVM 9).
Program counter – exist for one thread and has address of current executed instruction unless it is native then the PC is undefined. PC is in fact pointing to at a memory address in the Method Area.
Stack – JVM stack exists for one thread and holds one Frame for each method executing on that thread. It is LIFO data structure. Each stack frame has reference to for local variable array, operand stack, runtime constant pool of a class where the code being executed.
Native Stack – not supported by all JVMs. If JVM is implemented using C-linkage model for JNI than stack will be C stack(order of arguments and return will be identical in the native stack typical to C program). Native methods can call back into the JVM and invoke java methods.
Stack Frame – stores references that points to the objects or arrays on the heap.
Local variable array – all the variables used during execution of the method, all method parameters and locally defined variables.
Operand stack – used during execution of the bytecode instruction. Most of the bytecode is manipulating operand stack moving from local variables array.
Heap – area shared by all threads used to allocate class instances and arrays in runtime. Heap is the subject of Garbage Collection as a way of automatic memory management used by java. This space is most often mentioned in JVM performance tuning.
Non-Heap memory areas
Method area – shared by all threads. It stores runtime constant pool information, field and method information, static variable, method bytecode for each class loaded by the JVM. Details of this area depend on JVM implementation.
Runtime constant pool – this area corresponds constant pool table in the class file format. It contains all references to methods and fields. When a method or field is referred to JVM searches the actual address of the method or field in the memory by using the constant pool
Method and constructor code
Code cache – used for compilation and storage of methods compiled to native code by JIT compilation
Bytecode assigned to runtime data areas in the JVM via class loader is executed by the execution engine. Engine reads bytecode in the unit of instruction. Execution engine must change the bytecode to the language that can be executed by the machine. This can happen in one of two ways:
Interpreter – read, interpret and execute bytecode instructions one by one.
JIT (Just In Time) compiler – compensate disadvantage of interpretation. Start executing the code in interpreted mode and JIT compiler compile the entire bytecode to native code. Execution is then switched from interpretation to execution of native code which is much faster. Native code is stored in the cache. Compilation to native code takes time so JVM uses various metrics to decide whether to JIT compile the bytecode.